Technical developments[ edit ] In the context of Chinese ceramics, the term porcelain lacks a universally accepted definition see above. This in turn has led to confusion about when the first Chinese porcelain was made. Kiln technology has always been a key factor in the development of Chinese pottery. These were updraft kilns, often built below ground. Two main types of kiln were developed by about AD and remained in use until modern times. These are the dragon kiln of hilly southern China, usually fuelled by wood, long and thin and running up a slope, and the horseshoe-shaped mantou kiln of the north Chinese plains, smaller and more compact. In the late Ming, the egg-shaped kiln or zhenyao was developed at Jingdezhen , but mainly used there.
Strangely enough the “pattern ” are different but the bowls are identical. Early Peoples Republic period , probably s. Click here to see large picture
The only rule that is really certain when it comes to Chinese porcelain marks, is that most of them are NOT from the period they say. Still the marks are something of a fingerprint of the potter and its time, and from a careful study they offer a great help in identifying the date and maker of most Chinese porcelain.
D Medium teapot of reasonable good quality. The overall appearance and color is nice. There is a little side clearance in the lid and a short, now mended, hairline near the handle. The tip of the spout is restored. An unusual potters mark in the bottom is deep and clear. The teapot will be delivered with a Certificate of Authenticity Size: Most of this work is concentrated to the South China Sea, a virtual highway for ancient shipping linking China to India, the Middle East and Southeast Asia in an extensive maritime trade system.
This ancient trade started sometime around the 4th century and lasted well into the 19th century.
You’ll also be signed up to receive e-newsletters from Antique Trader and partners. Anne Gilbert May 22, Colorful Chinese porcelains have been popular with collectors for decades, and continue to bring good prices at auction. Then there are pieces labeled famille noir, famille verte and famille juaune. Others are described as Mandarin palette. And, what about those pieces with double blue ring marks on the bottom? Recently a friend who has been collecting Chinese porcelains for years showed me a piece her daughter had bought at an estate sale.
Dated porcelain comes more often than not in the form of a dedication or verse on the outer circumference or on the lid of a porcelain vessel. The date is usually in the form of a cyclic calendar year, often accompanied with the season or moon (lunar month).
Whether you collect antique Chinese pottery vases, eighteenth century British sterling silver or any type of antique at all, you know the understanding of antique identification marks is invaluable. Thousands of Antique Identification Marks When thinking of all antiques in existence there are tens of thousands, if not more, of different identification marks. For instance one website, Antique-Marks, has more than 10, images of maker’s marks and trademarks found on antique pottery and porcelain.
Every collector, whether a novice or seasoned, needs accurate resources that help to identify and value pieces of interest. The same is true for antique dealers, auctioneers and pickers. With the vast number of identification marks, it is virtually impossible to recognize all of the different manufacturers of one specific category, such as English porcelain. Many collectors that specialize in a specific type or era of antiques generally only recognize the most well known of the maker’s marks, along with the marks of pieces they have a special interest in collecting.
Marks are Clues to an Antique’s Past Many antiques have marks on the underside that are stamped, impressed or painted.
The city of Longquan in the coastal Chinese province of Zhejian is known for its celadon pottery and the traditional firing technology that imparts its distinctive glaze. Compounded from violet-golden clay and a mixture of burnt feldspar, limestone, quartz and plant ash, the glaze is prepared from recipes that have often been handed down for generations by teachers or within families.
The glaze is applied to a fired stoneware vessel, which is then fired again in a repeated cycle of six stages of heating and cooling where precise temperatures matter a great deal: The final product may take either of two styles:
The bumpy feel on the base of this porcelain vase is called “orange peel” and is indicative of late 18th-century Chinese export porcelain. The blue on this glaze indicates it was made in Japan.
Most dates in the inscriptions are given as Chinese cyclical dates which are repeated every 60th years. Without a reference to the reigning emperor, it is possible to by mistake move the piece 60 years back or forward in time. The modernization of China by scholars, teachers and students alike started in late Guangxu period, around , along with Dr Sun’s revolution. As of January 1, the Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China for official business.
The status of the Gregorian calendar between about and while China was controlled by several competing warlords is uncertain. From about until warlords continued to control northern China. Kuomintang who controlled the south of China, probably used the Gregorian calendar. The 10th of October the Kuomintang declared a reconstituted Republic of China and also decreed that as of 1th January everyone must use the Gregorian calendar. The earliest example I have so far on the practice of dating porcelain after the Gregorian calendar is from April that very same year, , in very small characters.
During the Kuomintang period dates also occurs as numbered years of their Republic, from , regarding this as year one. A date as the 29th year of the Republic as in mark should thus indicate plus 29 years, or
Stylistic and historical development The formative period to c. The dating for prehistoric culture in China is still very uncertain, but this material is probably at least 7, or 8, years old. The art of the Neolithic Period represents a considerable advance. The Yangshao Painted Pottery culture, named after the first Neolithic site discovered in , had its centre around the eastern bend of the Huang He Yellow River , and it is now known to have extended across northern China and up into Gansu province.
Yangshao pottery consists chiefly of full-bodied funerary storage jars made by the coiling, or ring , method. They are decorated, generally on the upper half only, with a rich variety of geometric designs, whorls, volutes, and sawtooth patterns executed in black and red pigment with sweeping, rhythmic brushwork that foreshadows the free brush painting of historical periods.
Six character iron red stamped mark on the base, Jiangxi Yu Yuan Chang Zuo where Jiangxi is the province where most of the Chinese porcelain industry is located, Yu is a name meaning ‘gold’, Yuan is a name, meaning ‘first’ or ‘primary’, Chang, is a name, meaning ‘prosperous’ and zuo meaning ‘workshop’.
All new marks are in the proper alphabetical order but the text will be red and in italics for a short time so as to highlight the newly added marks. There are about new marks. Since then I have acquired many more different marks, as well as more examples of known marks. Some are different combinations of reign marks but there are still over marks to cover the marks of all the Chinese Dynasties from the Shang BCE to the Guangxu reign ending in A relatively small but important number of Republic marks are also included.
Some marks were used to commemorate a very special event, and some were simply date marks. However, the relative proportions of these categories of marks changed during the Republic with reign marks nearly all, if not all, apocryphal — there is still some dispute over whether the Hongxian or Jurentang marks can be labelled as reign marks still making up the bulk of marks, but with private kiln or company marks making up the large majority of the rest. Hallmarks and commendations were still reasonably common, but the commendations moved location from the base of the porcelains to the written inscriptions on the sides of the porcelains in the Late Qing and Republic eras.
So these Late Qing and Republic aged porcelains have another very important attribute. Many of the non-imperial derived patterns have inscriptions, usually in black enamel and which include some or all of the following elements:
This work is shown, in parts on the company’s photo page where they show some of their artefacts, videos and pictures. For the more affordable pieces , the company has established a web page called: In addition, it shall be mentioned that the company, due to its detailed and exhaustive research has established such degree of authenticity of their recovered artifacts that they are now displayed and used as dating reference by many international museums.
Reign marks should be studied together with the many different variations of hallmarks, auspicious marks, potters’ marks and symbols that you find on the bases of Chinese porcelain throughout the ages.
What Chinese marks are good for An exception are marks bearing a date of the cyclical year calendar, but these were very few. Thus, reign marks also cannot be relied on for dating. More often than not they are not of the period. The majority of all marks encountered on antiques are reign marks. The above is especially true with export porcelain.
Some historians believe that ceramics production may have started there in the Han dynasty BC. Pine wood was found in abundance around the town. The Chang River provided transport for raw material to the kilns as well as for later shipping of the finished products. In summary, the ample clay resources, fuel supply, convenient transportation and eventual imperial favors provided the necessary catalyst for potters from other places in China to join in the commercial pottery production in the town.
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The Antiques connecting our past with our daily life in the most beautiful way. Stay in touch with your roots, with your tradition and meet another cultures and learn more about them. Sunday, November 20, The short guide how to date antique Minton pottery Thomas Minton founded his factory in around in Stoke-upon-Trent. Minton from and during its nearly two hundred year history is a very important Stoke firm that has traded under various styles.
Herbert Minton, succeeded his father as head of the firm, and it was due to him that he was able to develop the firm and gain it’s reputation. He also enlisted the services of many skilled artists. After Herbert Mintons death in the Minton name continued as the Company name but no Minton family member has been connected with the firm since.